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Orenburg

4.1
Bridges · Landmarks · Monuments
Orenburg is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Ural River, 1478km southeast of Moscow, on the boundary of Europe and Asia. Orenburg is also very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 548,331 (2010 Census); 549,361 (2002 Census);GeographyThe city is in the basin of the middle current of the River Ural . The highest point of the city is 154.4m.The origins of the city's nameSeveral historians have tried to explain the origins of the city's name. It was traditionally accepted that the word "orenburg" means a fortress on the River Or. In all probability, the word combination "orenburg" was proposed by I. K. Kirillov, who was the founder of the city. In 1734, in accordance with his project, a package of governmental documents was worked out. This was the starting point for Orenburg as a fortress city near the place where the Or and the Ural rivers cross.On 7 June 1734, "A Privilege for Orenburg" (tsar's edict) was ordered by Empress Anna Ivanovna. While a construction site of the main fortress changed many times (down the River Ural), the very name "Orenburg" has not changed since its founding in 1743.Between 1938 and 1957, the city was referred to as Chkalov, named after the famous Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov, although he was not born in and never lived in Orenburg, and never visited Orenburg. In 1954, Chkalov's 5-meter bronze sculpture was erected on the occasion of his 50th birth anniversary; this was installed on a 7-meter pedestal in the Boulevard (on the riverside promenade of the city, commonly named "Belovka").
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